|the recent presentation of a strong scientific evidence regarding the burial of Philip II of Macedon in Tomb I rather than Tomb II at Vergina, accompanied by what are believed to be the bodies of his wife and new born daughter who, although murdered after Philip's death, are now thought to have been interred beside him, sheds dramatic light on the dynasty that produced Alexander the Great.
By Ashoka Jahnavi Prasad
With the advent of meticulous science that’s unhindered by disciplinary boundaries, India must explore the vast archaelogical treasure trove that lies at its disposal
Understanding how societies respond to catastrophes is as relevant to our likely future as to our comprehension of past ages. A recent DNA study of a corpse from the time of Justinian revealed a pathogen of the same strain of the Bubonic plague as that which ravaged Europe from 1347-1351 CE. Holistic analysis of the 430-426 BC burials in the Kerameikos of Athens during the Great Plague, including DNA and strontium isotope analysis, paleopathological and histological analysis, dietary pattern and dental microwear studies, plus calculus biomolecular and biodistance analysis, will add new information. On the other hand, new approaches to the study of texts and funeral rituals will shed light on how the survivors in classical Athens understood and reacted to the disaster.
DNA analysis of humans, animals, and pathogens; strontium isotope analysis of movements of individuals over the course of their lives; source analysis of clays and metals; plus technical studies of the chaîne opératoire of pottery manufacture, establishing whether the inspiration, the pot, or the potter moved, illustrate the rapid advance of archaeological science.
The study of the 1,500 skeletons from the rescue excavation of the recently discovered cemetery in the deme of Phaleron in Athens, covering the period 750-470 BC, some with hands bound and showing evidence of torture before death, combined with the study of pottery and other objects buried with bodies, will provide a vast amount of new information about the history of Athens, including the identity, behaviour, and beliefs of its inhabitants.
In all such interdisciplinary efforts, a thorough grounding in the relevant texts and archaeological evidence is essential to avoid error and understand the historical significance of the information recovered. Similarly, the recent presentation of a strong scientific evidence regarding the burial of Philip II of Macedon in Tomb I rather than Tomb II at Vergina, accompanied by what are believed to be the bodies of his wife and new born daughter who, although murdered after Philip's death, are now thought to have been interred beside him, sheds dramatic light on the dynasty that produced Alexander the Great.
The wealth of new categories of data becoming available and new approaches to the interpretation of the past will require inter-disciplinary skill sets. A number of universities are rising to the challenge. University of Sheffield, has for long combined the study of archaeology with archaeological science; University of Cambridge, at the behest of its vice chancellor is considering how the new age of the storage and organisation of big data can be brought to bear on the vast amount of material recovered by archaeological excavation; Harvard University has started a programme on the Science of the Human Past and entered into a collaboration with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the Max Planck Institute in Jena to study ancient DNA; and University of Arizona has created a new interdisciplinary programme via a Center for Mediterranean Archaeology and the Environment, offering joint degrees for co-majors in one area of Mediterranean archaeology and one field of archaeological science. The state-of-the-art Laboratory for Archaeological Science will open this spring at the The American School of Classical Studies at Athens. The future belongs to those prepared to cross narrow academic boundaries.
We in India have an archaelogical treasure trove at our disposal. Meticulous science, unhindered by disciplinary boundaries, can reveal new insights which have the potential to revolutionise social, physical as well as biological sciences. Inter-disciplinarians, arise!